Thermal Crosslinking Bioinks Customization Services

CD BioSciences is a biotechnology company that provides a high resolution 3D printing technology platform called 3Dmicroflu™ for biological 3D printing. In addition, we also provide high quality bioinks and bio-ink customization services suitable for all types of 3D printers. If you don't find a bioink that meets your project needs in our product range, please contact us now for expert customization services. Below you will find an overview of CD BioSciences' customization services based on thermal crosslinking bioinks customization services in the chemical crosslinking method.

Thermal crosslinking by heating or cooling the polymer solution is one of the simplest chemical crosslinking methods, and it is mainly used for polymers that can be continuously heated or cooled during the 3D printing process. For the time being, thermal crosslinking is the easiest but has many problems to overcome. For example, the glue formation time is longer for thermal crosslinking compared to other crosslinking methods. This makes it impossible to precisely control the degree of crosslinking of bioinks in the use of thermal crosslinking methods. In addition, the heat generated in the heating module can have a negative effect on the cells in the bioink. Therefore, an important element in the design of thermal crosslinking bioinks is to find materials with low melting points or to lower the melting point by functionalized modifications. By ensuring that the temperature conditions are appropriate, we are able to design and customize the rest of the thermal cross-linked bioink while ensuring cellular activity.

Design view and finished print view of carboxylated agarose bioinks for 3D bioprinting by thermal crosslinking.Fig. 1. Design view and finished print view of carboxylated agarose bioinks for 3D bioprinting by thermal crosslinking. (Forget, A, et al., 2017)

CD BioSciences' custom service process for thermal crosslinking bioinks

Currently, the most commonly used and commercialized thermal cross-linked bioinks are mostly agarose-related materials. Natural agarose has a high melting point and generally dissolves when heated above 90°C. A good semi-solid gel is formed when the temperature drops to 40°C. So some chemical modification or addition of other polymeric materials to agarose is usually required to achieve a lower melting point of bioinks, preferably by lowering the cross-linking temperature to about 30°C. Along with the lowering of the crosslinking temperature, other physical properties of the bioink are also changed, such as forming speed, mechanical properties, rheological behavior and cell viability. In terms of customizing bioinks related to thermal crosslinking, the design thinking of CD BioSciences' professional team will be based mainly on the more widely used agarose bioinks, but also on other biocompatible polymers with thermal crosslinking properties, centered on the following aspects.

  • Functionalized modifications, such as carboxylation and sulfhydration, are achieved through various chemical reactions to change the original physical properties of the bioink. These physical properties include the melting point of the material, thermal crosslinking temperature, and forming properties are important parameters that affect the printability of bioink printing.
  • The relationship between the degree of functionalization on the concentration, cell viability and mechanical properties of the bioink used needs to be determined. CD BioSciences will give you the most suitable formulation ratio for your actual needs in the final solution.

CD BioSciences is always committed to providing you with a custom bioink that is thermally cross-linked to best meet your project needs. Please trust the expertise and proficiency of our design and research team.

*Customization and Delivery Process

CD BioSciences has been committed to providing one-stop bioinks customization services and guarantees

(1) immediate response to your online inquiry.

(2) customization solutions on demand within 5-7 days.

(3) daily feedback on the customization process.

Thermal Crosslinking Bioinks Customization Services

If you are interested in our bioinks customization services, please contact us now for exclusive services. All services are available on a 24/7/365 basis.


  1. Forget, A.; et al. Mechanically tunable bioink for 3D bioprinting of human cells. Advanced Healthcare Materials. 2017, 6: 1700255.
For research use only, not intended for any clinical use.