Host-guest Interaction Crosslinking Bioinks Customization Services

CD BioSciences is a biotechnology company that provides a high resolution 3D printing technology platform called 3Dmicroflu for biological 3D printing. In addition, we also provide high quality bioinks and bioink customization services suitable for all types of 3D printers. If you don't find the bioink which can meet your project needs in our product range, please contact us now for expert customization services. Below you will find an overview of CD BioSciences' customization services based on host-guest interaction crosslinking of bioinks in the physical crosslinking method.

Host–guest interactions represent specific noncovalent interactions that are based on selective inclusion complexation between macrocyclic hosts, such as cucurbit[n]urils (CB), cyclodextrins (CD), crown ethers, and smaller guest molecules such alcohols, acids, amines, amino acids, or less polar molecules such as alkyls, cycloalkanes, aromatic molecules. It is a type of supramolecular binding that can be used as a cross-link. Unlike ionic crosslinking and hydrogen bonding crosslinking, host-guest crosslinking must be combined with other crosslinking methods to form composite bioinks. When the host-guest interaction is used alone, the printed network will be very loose or scattered, which is unable to form a long-term stable structure. Therefore, the main design idea of host-guest interaction crosslinking ink is a double crosslinking system, which will not only enhance the stability of host-guest interaction crosslinking, but also produce a 1+1>2 effect.

Dual crosslinking networks formed by ultraviolet (UV) crosslinking of methacrylated hyaluronic acid and host-guest assembly of Cyclodextrin and Adamantane functional groups. Fig. 1. Dual crosslinking networks formed by ultraviolet (UV) crosslinking of methacrylated hyaluronic acid and host-guest assembly of Cyclodextrin and Adamantane functional groups. (Ouyang, Liliang, et al., 2016)

The object of the double crosslinking of the host–guest interaction is generally the chemical crosslinking agent. The photo-crosslinked methacrylic hyaluronic acid and the host-guest interaction of aromatic molecules are provided in the above picture as a composite crosslinking idea. The host-guest interaction in the composite bioink is achieved by the assembly of β-cyclodextrin (host) and adamantine (guest). The idea of double cross-linking complexes is now widely used in host-guest interaction-based bioinks, and this is the main idea that CD BioSciences offers for customization.

CD BioSciences' custom service process for host-guest interaction cross-linking bioinks

As mentioned above in the field of host-guest interaction-based bioinks, CD BioSciences focuses on customizing your ink through a double cross-linking design concept. On the one hand, the dual cross-linked bioinks based on host-object interaction can mutually promote the effect of 1+1>2. On the other hand, the crosslinking of the host-guest interaction is a controlled and dynamic bonding process, and such a dynamically regulated crosslinking network can make the host-guest crosslinking-based bioinks suitable for various customization needs.

Based on the advantages of tunable bioinks cross-linked by host-guest interaction, CD BioSciences' customization services mainly include the following aspects.

  • Selecting the right bio-ink custom raw material according to the construction needs of the printed cells or tissues
  • Cell viability is the first thing to be taken into consideration
  • Selection of dual-composite objects that can modulate the action of the host-guest interaction
  • Determination of the respective ratios of the dual composites

CD BioSciences is sure to customize bioinks to meet your printing needs, taking into account cellular activity, mechanical properties, formulation ratios, etc.

*Customization and Delivery Process

CD BioSciences has been committed to providing one-stop bioinks customization services and guarantees

  1. immediate response to your online inquiry.
  2. customization solutions on demand within 5-7 days.
  3. daily feedback on the customization process.

Customization and Delivery Process

If you are interested in our bioinks customization services, please contact us now for exclusive services. All services are available on a 24/7/365 basis.


  1. Ouyang, Liliang.; et al. 3D Printing of shear-thinning hyaluronic acid hydrogels with secondary crosslinking. ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering. 2016, 2: 1743.
For research use only, not intended for any clinical use.