Hydrogen Bonding Crosslinking Bioinks Customization Services

CD BioSciences is a biotechnology company that provides a high resolution 3D printing technology platform called 3Dmicroflu for biological 3D printing. In addition, we also provide high quality bioinks and bioink customization services suitable for all types of 3D printers. If you don't find the bioink which can meet your project needs in our product range, please contact us now for expert customization services. Below you will find an overview of CD BioSciences' customization services based on hydrogen bonding crosslinking of bioinks in the physical crosslinking method.

Hydrogen bonds are intermolecular interactions between hydrogen atoms and electronegative atoms that play an important role in the formation of various inorganic (e.g., water) and organic molecules (e.g., DNA). Hydrogen bonds have a low binding energy (4 - 60 kJ/mol) and are formed mainly between two hydroxyl groups or between carboxyl and amide groups. Multiple hydrogen bonds are relatively protective for polymer networks and provide an idea for cross-linking of gels. Physical cross-linking methods based on hydrogen bonding are mainly applied to polymers and biomolecules that contain hydrogen atoms and have intramolecular or intermolecular hydrogen bonding.

DNA and peptide cross-linking mediated by DNA hybridization based on hydrogen-bonding interactions. Fig. 1. DNA and peptide cross-linking mediated by DNA hybridization based on hydrogen-bonding interactions. (Li, Chuang, et al., 2015)

Currently, a major application of cross-linked hydrogels based on hydrogen bonding is DNA hybridization related to bioink. Generally DNA is subjected to temperature or other stimuli, weak hydrogen bonds between complementary paired bases in the DNA strand are broken. When the temperature is restored or other stimuli are no longer applied, the complementary paired sequences can be recombined and the double helix form will reappear. DNA-related bioinks based on hydrogen bonding take advantage of the reversible nature of the DNA double helix structure. The diagram above shows the idea of designing a bioink based on cross-linking DNA and peptides by hydrogen bonding based on DNA hybridization, which has the advantage of fast cross-linking and relatively high survival rate of cell growth.

CD BioSciences' custom service process for hydrogen bonding cross-linking bioinks

If you have a need for the custom bioink based on hydrogen bonding, please do not hesitate to choose CD BioSciences with its professional customization service team. The main problem with cross-linking based on hydrogen bonding is that too low hydrogen bonding and too high multiple hydrogen bonding have an impact on the formability of bio-3D printing. Too weak hydrogen bonding can lead to non-formability, while too strong hydrogen bonding can lead to poor mechanical properties and fracture. In addition, the use of hydrogen bonding crosslinking often requires external factors such as temperature change to regulate the hydrogen bonding. For example, to induce hydrogen bonding crosslinking at low temperatures, it is necessary to consider that the cells to be printed are freeze-resistant. Therefore, the type and nature of the cells to be printed also provide an important basis for the customization of bioinks based on hydrogen bonding crosslinking.

Hydrogen bonding crosslinking bioinks customization services provided by the expert team at CD BioSciences are centered around the following aspects.

  • Selections of the right material containing hydrogen bonding interactions for different cell and tissue printing needs.
  • Modulating the strength of hydrogen bonds according to appropriate external environmental factors while paying attention to cell viability
  • Incorporation of other types of materials to enhance the printability of hydrogen bonding-based inks

CD BioSciences' custom services will take into account all aspects of cell viability, mechanical properties, and cross-linking effects to develop proprietary bioink solutions based on hydrogen bonding for you.

*Customization and Delivery Process

CD BioSciences has been committed to providing one-stop bioinks customization services and guarantees 

  1. immediate response to your online inquiry.
  2. customization solutions on demand within 5-7 days.
  3. daily feedback on the customization process.

Customization and Delivery Process

If you are interested in our bioinks customization services, please contact us now for exclusive services. All services are available on a 24/7/365 basis.


  1. Li, Chuang.; et al. Rapid formation of a supramolecular polypeptide-DNA hydrogel for in situ three-dimensional multilayer bioprinting. Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 2015, 54(13): 3957–3961.
For research use only, not intended for any clinical use.