Enzymatic Reaction Crosslinking Bioinks Customization Services

CD BioSciences is a biotechnology company providing services related to 3D bioprinting, including 3Dmicroflu™ high resolution 3D printing technology platform, a series of high quality bioinks and exclusive customisation of bioinks. The bioink customisation service is provided by CD BioSciences' team of experts and ensures that it is tailored to your experimental project. As you can see in the following, CD BioSciences offers the customised bioink service for enzyme-reactive crosslinking, which is a classification of chemical-reactive crosslinking.

The enzymatic cross-linking reaction uses enzymes as catalysts to facilitate the formation of covalent bonds between protein-based polymers which is an attractive cross-linking method for 3D bioprinting applications. The advantage of enzyme crosslinking for 3D bioprinting is that the conditions of the enzyme crosslinking reaction are relatively mild, which fits well with the physiological environment of cell growth and therefore improves cell viability. The diagram below shows the specific crosslinking process mediated by transglutaminase, tyrosinase and peroxidase.

  • Transglutaminases are an extensive family of thiolases that primarily catalyse the formation of covalent bonds between the free amine group of protein-bound lysine and the g-carboxyl group of protein-bound glutamine.
  • Tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of tyrosine residues and phenolics such as dopamine to activated quinones in the presence of O2. The activated quinone reacts mainly with hydroxyl or amino groups via michael-type addition reactions.
  • Peroxidases are a wide family of enzymes that typically catalyze the following reaction: ROOR' + electron donor (2 e) + 2H+ → ROH + R'OH. The majority of the peroxidases use hydrogen peroxide as substrate. The most commonly used peroxidases in hydrogel formation are horseradish peroxidase and soy bean peroxidase.

Enzymatic crosslinking mediated by A) transglutaminase, B) tyrosinase, and C) peroxides.Fig. 1. Enzymatic crosslinking mediated by A) transglutaminase, B) tyrosinase, and C) peroxides. (Liliana, S, et al., 2012)

There are many other enzymes used in hydrogel crosslinking including phosphopantetheinyl transferase, lysyl oxidase, plasma amine oxidase and horseradish peroxidase mimetic enzymes. In most cases, enzyme crosslinking bioinks often need to be used in combination with other crosslinking inks to maximise their benefits.

CD BioSciences' custom service process for photocrosslinking bioinks

The greatest advantage of enzymatically cross-linked bioinks is the higher cell attachment and survival rates compared to others. Proper use of the advantages of these bioinks can greatly increase the success rate of bio-3D printing. Enzymatic cross-linking bioinks are generally not used alone because of their relatively poor mechanical and printable properties. CD BioSciences offers customisation services for enzymatic reaction crosslinking bioinks, mainly by combining them with other crosslinking inks to meet your unique project needs. In the process of enzymatic reaction crosslinking with other bioinks, the physical properties of the components such as rheological properties, thermal stability and biocompatibility are changed. Finding the most suitable ratio of different crosslinkers is the most important part of our customisation process. CD BioSciences has a team of experts with extensive experience in the design and customisation of bioinks, mainly offering the following services.

  • Selection of suitable enzymatic crosslinkers and materials according to the cells or organoids to be printed
  • Selection of other cross-linking materials in suitable combination with enzymatic cross-linking
  • Finding the optimum ratio between crosslinkers according to higher cell viability and better mechanical properties

CD BioSciences is always committed to providing you with optimally formulated customised bioinks for enzymatic reactions cross-linking, taking into account multiple aspects such as cell viability, mechanical properties and cross-linking time.

*Customization and Delivery Process

CD BioSciences has been committed to providing one-stop bioinks customization services and guarantees.

(1) immediate response to your online inquiry.

(2) customization solutions on demand within 5-7 days.

(3) daily feedback on the customization process.

Enzymatic Reaction Crosslinking Bioinks Customization Services

If you are interested in our bioinks customization services, please contact us now for exclusive services. All services are available on a 24/7/365 basis.


  1. Liliana, S.; et al. Enzyme-catalyzed crosslinkable hydrogels: emerging strategies for tissue engineering. Biomaterials. 2012, 33(5): 1281-1290.
For research use only, not intended for any clinical use.